The top market contributors to e-commerce in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the last three years were South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya, with Ghana also showing growth, having replaced Kenya in the top three contributors in 2020. This is according to a recent white paper released by Visa titled 'eCommerce developments across Sub Saharan Africa (SSA)'.
In 1938, French colonial authorities in what is today Mali started on an ambitious infrastructure plan to transform the desert into an area of agricultural production. Water was diverted from the Niger River through a canal system to enable irrigation on over one million hectares of fertile land. Eventually covering over 100,000 hectares, this project is still one of the largest irrigation schemes in Africa.ByTom Higginbottom, Roshan Adhikari and Timothy Foster
President Cyril Ramaphosa has called on leaders on the continent to speak with one clear voice to emphasise the primacy of multilateralism, and to express unwavering support for the full implementation of the United Nations Climate Change Convention and its Paris Agreement.
COVID-19 mitigation could open new opportunities for agroecological innovation, here a multifunctional landscape in Ethiopia. Michael Hauser (ICRISAT), CC BY-SA
So far, the global food system has proven to be resilient to the COVID-19 pandemic. Food is still being produced, processed and distributed. Unfortunately, the system’s underlying injustices and inequities continue too. Around 1.58 billion people globally can’t afford healthy diets.
These inequities are especially stark on the African continent. Even before the COVID-19 crisis, the African food system was ailing. Food is perennially in short supply. In 2018, more than 250 million people in sub-Saharan Africa experienced severe food insecurity, incomes for farmers are lower than anywhere globally in real terms, and more than 30% of children are stunted partly due to poverty and poor diets.
Each crisis tends to be met with a response to mitigate the harm, but the system always seems to return to its earlier undesirable state.
The shock set off by COVID-19 is likely to be different. That’s because it is causing simultaneous and synchronised system failures that will erode economic opportunities now and potentially for years to come. For example, tourism will be hit by limitations on travel and gatherings.
It’s also an opportunity for a different kind of recovery. With less inertia resulting in a return to the previous state, alternative scenarios become plausible. In this respect it’s similar to the oil crisis of the 1970s, which changed societies fundamentally.
Going back to "business as usual" investments in agriculture and food systems could reproduce those systems’ inequities. Instead, recovery efforts should be geared towards creating a better future.
Researchers have already done the background work to inform this process.
We believe it is possible to redesign food systems to deliver healthy foods, allow farming families to make a good living, and support thriving societies while generating sustainable ecosystem services. The COVID-19 recovery is a time to put decades of data about this to work.
Here we outline three ways to improve agriculture in line with the sustainable development goals: to make systems resilient, sustainable and fair. The examples have all been developed and tested by researchers at universities and research centres.
Focus on nutrition-sensitive agriculture
The World Health Organization has identified a double burden of malnutrition: poor nutrition along with overweight or obesity. This is a growing problem worldwide.
The underlying ideas are focusing on more integrated farming systems that use species diversity as a source of resilience and diversified diets while reducing the use of harmful chemicals.
Artificially stabilised starch food markets distort prices and consumer incentives. When governments subsidise inputs for certain crops, their production becomes relatively cheaper and so do consumer prices. So, especially poorer consumers are more likely to choose these starchy food items that do not provide sufficiently balanced nutrients.
Nutrition-sensitive agriculture supporting diverse diets needs to be encouraged instead. Smart subsidies could steer food production into a state that supports healthy food choices and increases biodiversity in landscapes.
There should be a greater variety of ways to meet everyone’s aspirations and needs. Activities such as processing harvests and adding value to products will also improve the functioning of food systems – so these activities should be supported and encouraged. Young people who are turning away from agriculture could play a pivotal role in developing complementary businesses in rural spaces.
The various linkages between the health of natural resources, agriculture or agroforestry, humans and the environment have to be recognised and purposefully managed to optimise impacts and avoid unintended consequences.
These building blocks provide starting points for a new political discourse about agriculture. It should be guided by the overall goal of a resilient, sustainable and fair food system. Resulting strategies must consider the variety of biophysical, social and economic conditions across African countries.
Covid-19 emergency funds could change the trajectory of agriculture. It’s time to build scientists into the planning for the future and initiate the development of a comprehensive strategy for Africa’s future food solutions.
The Conversation Africa The Conversation Africa is an independent source of news and views from the academic and research community. Its aim is to promote better understanding of current affairs and complex issues, and allow for a better quality of public discourse and conversation. Go to: https://theconversation.com/africa
About the author
Kai Mausch is Senior Economist, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).
Michael Hauser is Principal Scientist and Theme Leader for Markets, Institutions, Nutrition and Diversity, CGIAR System Organization.
Todd Rosenstock is Senior Scientist, Agriculture and the Environment, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).
Wanjiku Gichohi-Wainaina, Public health nutritionist, CGIAR System Organization
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